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CATALOGUE

MARINE POLYZOA

COLLECTION

BRITISH MUSEUM.

PART III.

CYCLOSTOMATA.

LONDON:

PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES.

1875.

CATALOGUE

CYCLOSTOMATODS POLYZOA

COLLECTION

BRITISH MUSEUM.

GEORGE BUSK, F.R.S.

LONDON:

PRINTED BY OEDER OF THE TRUSTEES.

1875.

pnixTr.i) i;i- tayi^or a.\d fraxi'is

KED LION COUilT. FLEhT STREET.

PREFACE.

The Third Part of the ' Catalogue of Marine Polyzoa ' has been pre- pared by Mr. George Busk, F.R.S., the Author of the two preceding Parts, which contain an account of the Chilostomatous Polyzoa.

Although its preparation was commenced many years ago (in fact, soon after the publication of Part 2), its completion was delayed by the difficulty of the subject, by repeated acquisitions of addi- tional specimens, and by the manifold other engagements of the Author. The execution of the Plates (all of which were drawn, and many also lithographed, by the Author himself) was another cause of delay.

There cannot be any doubt that the present Catalogue will be found to contain only a small proportion of existing species ; but it is hoped that it will serve as a guide to collectors and students at a time when more attention is paid to these Zoophytes than formerly.

ALBERT GUNTHER.

British Moseum, Feb. 6, 1875.

SYSTEMATIC INDEX.

Suborder II. CYCLOSTOMATA.

I. AbTIC ULATA S. RaDICATA.

Fam. I. Crisiid^.

Page

1. Crisidia 3

1. cornuta 3

2. Crisia 4

1. eburnea 4

2. denticulata 4

3. elongata 5

4. edwardsiana 5

5. fistulosa 5

6. eburneo-denticulata .... 5

7. acropora 6

8. margaritacea 6

9. sinclarensis 6

10. holdsworthii 7

11. couferta 7

12. tubulosa 7

13. sertularioides 7

14. patagonica 8

15. sinensis 8

16. martinicensis 8

17. californica 8

18. punctata 8

19. attenuata 8

20. reciirva 9

21. .setosa 9

22. biciliata 9

23. producta 9

II. Inabticulata.

A. Erectce. Fam. II. Idmoneid^.

1. Idmonea 10

1. atlantica 11

2. radians 11 I

3. milneana 12

4. contorta 12

5. notomala 12

6. marioneusis 13

7. irregularis 13

8. parasitica 13

9. gracillima 14

10. frondosa 14

11. gracilis 14

12. serpula 14

13. meneghinii 14

14. triforis 15

15. tubulipora 15

IG. dilatata 15

17. angustata 15

18. rustica 15

19. tuberosa 16

20. canariensis 16

21. californica 16

22. fenestrata 16

2. Hornera 16

1. frondiculata 17

2. lichenoides 17

3. csespitosa 17

4. pectinata 18

5. violacea 18

6. tubulosa 19

3. Retihomera 19

1. foliacea IQ

4. Pustidopora 20

1. delicatula 20

2. australis 21

3. parasitica 21

4. proboscidea 21

6. clavaeformis 22

6. intricaria 22

7. gallica 22

8. indica 22

9. deflexa 22

10. orcadensis 23

SYSTEMATIC INDEX.

Page

B, AdnaUe s. DvcionheiUis. Fam. III. TuBULiPOiuD^.

1. Alecto 23

1. major 24»

2. dilatans 24

3. ffranulata 24

2. Tubulipora 24

1. phalanoea 25

2. tlabellaris 25

3. serpens 25

4. fuugia 26

5. ventricosa 26

6. pyriformis 27

7. organizans 27

8. dichotoma 27

9. malaccensis 27

I'am. IV. DiASTOPORiD-E.

1. J)iastopora 28

1. simplex 28

2. obelia 28

3. patina 28

4. congesta 29

2. Mesenteripora 29

1. meandrma 29

Fam. V. D1SCOPOHELLID.S!.

1. DiscoporeUa 30

1. hispida 30

2. ven-ucaria 31

3. algoensis 31

Page

4. ciliata 31

5. novse-zelandiae 32

6. fimbriata 32

7. californica 32

8. radiata 32

9. mediterranea 33

10. holdsworthii 33

11. convexa 33

12. novc'E-hollandise 33

13. complanata 33

14. annularis 34

15. mellevillensis 34

2. Tennvsonia 34

1. stellata 34

3. Radiopora 84

1. simplex 35

2. cristata 36

4. Domopora 35

1. trmicata 35

2. annulata 36

5. Defranceia 36

I. lucernaria 36

P'am. VI. Fbondipobidje.

1. Fasciculipora 37

1. digitata 37

2. ramosa 37

2. Frondipora 38

1. reticulata 38

2. palmata 38

3. verrucosa 39

4. marsigli 39

Explanation of the Plates see end of volume.

CATALOGUE

CYCLOSTOMATOUS POLYZOA.

INTRODUCTION.

With our present imperfect knowledge of many points in the structure and life-history of the Polyzoa, and the difficulty (more especially in the present Suborder) of arriving at any satisfactory natural arrangement merely from the inspection of the dead skeletons, the classification here adopted can only be regarded as provisional.

Towards a more natural system the labours of Prof. F. A. Smitt have of late years afforded much valuable suggestive matter ; and although unprepared to follow Prof. Smitt in many of his conclusions, and disposed to disagree with him in many points as regards the limitation of genera and species, the Author is fully convinced that Prof. Smitt's observations will mark the commencement of a new era in the study of the Polyzoa, and that they will serve, in many cases, to indicate the direction in which our attempts at their natural classification should proceed.

The classification adopted in this Catalogue is nearly the same as that followed in the Author's ' Monograph of the Fossil Polyzoa of the Crag,' 1859, p. 91 a classification which in its main features does not diff'er very widely from that employed by

MATA.

2 CrCLOSTOlUATA.

Prof. Smitt ill his two papers on the order C'yclostomata*. It is shown in the following

JSi/noptical Arrangeinent of Recent Pohizoa Ci/clostomata.

. /< -J \ Crisia.

^Aktuilata Cr,md<e | Crisidia.

(Hornera. Retihornera. Pustulopora. ._ I rif ''''■

(TUBVUNEA.. -i' iTubuhpora.

\ y JVlesentenpora

I j Discoporella.

U.NARTUUUATA. ^ \l)i,coj,orellidm A Radiopora.

\ -Uomopora. I \_ Defrancia.

I Fasciculinea. FrondiiJorid<B .< -f^ -,. '^ ^ \h ronclipora.

Suborder II. CYCLOSTOMATA.

Cells tubular, calcareous, partially free or wholly connate; aperture terminal, not furnished with a movable lip or fringe.

Cyclostomata, Busk, Smitt, Sfc.

Tubiiliporina, M.-Edw., Hagenow, Johnston, Sfc.

Aiiloporina (pars), Elirh.

Myrioporiua (pars), Ehrb.

Cerioporina (pars), Bronn.

Centrifuginea (pars), D'Orb.

I. C. ARTICULATA s. RADIO ATA.

Zoariura divided into distinct internodes by flexible joints, attached by radical tubes. One family only.

Radicellata, UOrh.

Articulatis .<. Radicatse, Bk. Crag Polyz. p. 92.

* " Kritisk Forteckning ofver Skandin.-ivien.s Haf's-Eryozoer, 1864 & 1865," Ofvers. af Kongl. Vetenskiips-Akademiens Forhandl. 1865, p. 115, & 1866, p. 395.

CKISlID.ii.

Parnily I. ClilSIID Ji], Bk.

Les Crisies, M.-Edw. Mem. sur les Crmes, les Honi'eres, ^-c, Ann.

d. Sc. Nat. 2'= s6\: i. ix. (1838). Crisiadse, Johtist. B. Zooph. 2nd ed. p. 282 (1847) ; Bk. Vvy. of Rattles.

(1852). Crisidffi, HOrb. Pal. Fran^. T. Cref. p. 596 (1850-1852). Crisiidse, Busk, C. Puli/z. 1859, p. 92. Crisieas, Smitt (1864).

1. CRISIDIA, M.-Edw. A single cell in each interiiode.

Sertulai-ia (pars), Linn., Berkl., Esper.

(/ellularia (pai-s), Pallan, d,-c.

Cellaria (pars), Solander, Laiuk., Busc.

Eucratea (pars), Lunix., Misso, Fleming, Templetun, Cuvier.

Unicellaria (pars), lihdnv.

Crisidia, M.-Edji\, Jo/mstuti, Landsb., Gosse, Alder, Hincks, Norman,

Busk, ^-c. (noQ D'Orb., Reuss). Crisia (pars), Johnst. (1st ed.), Hassall, Couch, Smitt, Lamx., Thomps. Filicrisia, D'Orb. F'alcaria, Oke.n, Gray. Tibiana, Lister (uon Blainville, Lamx.).

1. Crisidia coruuta, M.-Edw. (Plate I. figs. 1-10.)

Each cell giving rise to two secondarj' cells ; oooecia axillary.

Var. a. coenuta. One of the secondary cells usually aborted and represented by a three-jointed seta.

"Goat's-Horu Coralline," Ellis, Corall. p. 42, pi. xxi. fig. 0. c (very

good); Sertularia coruuta, Linn. ; Esper, Sert. pi. xix. tig. 1. Cellularia falcata, Pallas. Cellularia cornuta, Brugniere, Hogg. Cellaria cornuta, Soland., Lamk., Bosc.

Crisidia cornuta, M.-Edtv. I. c. p. 11, pi. viii. fig. 2 ; Johnst. 2nd ed. p. 287, pi. 50^ figs. 1 & 2; Landsb. : D'Orb. I. c. p. 603; Gosse, Alder, Hincks, Norman, ^c.

? Crisidia setacea, Sars.

Hah. British and Irish coasts, generally distributed ; coast of France {M.-Edw.) ; Mediterranean {Pallas, D'Orb.) ; Sweden and Norway {Loven, Sars, Smitt) ; Shetland {Norm.).

Var. /3. GENiciTLATA. (Plate I. figs. 1-4.) Eoth secondary cells fuUy developed.

Tibiana (sp.), Lister, Phil. Trans. 1834, p. 385, pi. xii. fiu-. 5.

Crisia genieiilata, M.-Edw. I. c. p. ■'>. pi. vi. fig. 1 ; Johnst. p. 286 (no

tig.); Lmuhb., Gosse, Sam. Crisia cornuta (var.j, Smitt. Filiorisia geniculata, D'Orb. I. c. p. C04.

Hub. Both shores of the British Channel.

2. CRISIA, Lamx.

Two or more cells in each internode ; oou3cia irrcgularlj' placed. Synonymy as under Crisidia.

Bicrisia (sp.), D'Orb. I. c. p. 601.

1. Crisia eburnea, Linn. (Plate II. figs. 1, 2, Plate V. figs. 1, 2, 5-10.)

Zoocecia usually 3-7 in each internode (rarely 9-11), loosely aggregated ; branches usually arising from the lowest zoooecium in the internode ; border of aperture usually circular, sometimes pointed on one side ; oocecium pyriform.

Sertularia eburnea, Linn., Esper, Jameson.

"Sertolaria d'avorio," Camlini.

Cellularia eburnea, Pallas, Bruguiere.

Cellaria eburnea, Solatid., Bosc, Lamarck ; Johnst. Trans. Newc. Soc.

ii. p. 262, pi. xi. fig. 5. Ci'isia eburnea, Lamx.; M.-Edw.; Fleming; Johnst. B. Zooph. ; Tem-

pleton ; Blainv. ; Misso ; Couch ; Hincks ; Norman ; Alder ; Hassall ;

Macgillvray; Hyndman; Held; Van Beneden, Rech. s. I'Anat. des

Bryozoa, Mem. Brux. t. xviii. p. 28, pi. iii. figs. 12-16; TfOrh.,

Gosse, SfC.

Hah. British and Irish coasts ; France ; Mediterranean ; Madeira ; Adriatic ; coasts of Norway ; Spitzbergen ; Shetland.

Var. ACULEATA.

Crisia aculeata, Hnss. A. N. Hist. vi. p. 170, pi. 7. fig. 34, and vii.

p. 366 ; Johnst. I. c. p. 285 ; Busk, Rep. B. Ass. 1859, p. 146. Crisia eburnea, M.-Edw. I. c. p. 198, tab. 6. figs. 2, 2 a. Crisia eburnea (var. cornuta), Smitt, I. c. p. 117.

The tubular-jointed process described by Dr. HassaU as a " long spinous process " appears to act as a radical tube, serving occasionally as a means of attachment.

2. Crisia denticulata. (Plate II. figs. 3, 4, Plate III. figs. 1-6, Plate IV. figs. 1-4.)

Zoocecia almost straight, connate throughout nearly their whole length ; aperture elliptical, usually pointed on one side ; oocecia often truncate, annulated, placed irregularly ; bi'anchcs usually arising from the fourth or fifth cell above the joint (occasionally from the second in the lower part of the zoarium).

Cellaria denticulata, Laink.

2. CRISIA. 5

Ch'isiii luxata, Flemlnfi, BlainviUe; Juhnst. B. Z. 1st ed. p. 262 ; Couch. Crisia denticulata, M.-Echo. I. c. p. 201, pi. vii. fig. 1 ; Johnst. 2Ed

ed. p. 284, pi. 50. figs. 5, C; Gray; Sars; D'Orb.; Gosse ; Alder;

Busk ; Hmcks ; Norman ; Smitt, I. c. p. 117 (nee Floridan Bryozoa). Cellaria arctica, Sa7-s, Nyt May. 1863, p. 31 (teste Smitt).

Hah. Coasts of Britain and Ireland, very generally distributed ; Norway ; ? Spitzbergen ; ? Grand Manan (Stimps.).

3. Crisia elongata, M.-Edw. (Plate IV. figs. 5, 6.)

Zoocecia 12-21 iu each internode, often much produced and curved forwards ; aperture orbicular ; branches arising from fifth to ninth zoooecium in each internode ; oooecium ?

Cellaria elongata, M.-Edw. I. c. p. 10, pi. 7. fig. 2 ; D'Orb. I. c. p. 599.

Hah. Red Sea ? (M.- Edwards) ; Algoa Bay.

4. Crisia edwardsiana, D'Orb. (Plate II. figs. 5-8.)

Zoocecia 2-3 in each internode, curved forwards ; dorsal surface of internode convex, and usually ridged transversely ; branches arising from the first or lowest cell in the internode ; one or other of the zoocecia in each internode usually armed with a long jointed Bpine ; oooecium lateral, pyriform.

? Bicrisia Edwardsiana (sic), D'Orb. I. a. p. 601 (1852). Crisidia Edwardsiana (1839), Voy. dans VAmer. Mer. Polypiers, p. 7, pi. 1. figs. 4-8 ; M'Gilliv. Aust. Po/yzoa, p.

Hah. Coasts of Patagonia {D'Orhigny) ; Terra del Fuego {Dar- win !) ; New Zealand {Dr. Sinclair !) ; Australia (!/' GilUvray).

M. d'Orbigny's figure represents the zoocecia as much longer and slenderer than they are in any specimen that has come under my notice ; but there can be so little doubt that his is the same species as that here described that I have retained his name.

5. Crisia fistulosa, Heller. (Plate VI. a. figs. 1, 2.)

Zoocecia 6-15 in each internode, closely adnate for the greater part of their length ; terminal portion produced, quite cylindrical, slightly contracted towards the end and turned abruptly forwards ; branches given ofi" from the third to sixth zoooecium, in the latter case that being the highest in the internode ; oooecium subglobose, even, formed by one of the uppermost cells. (.Joints white or light brown.)

Crisidia fistulosa, Heller, Die Bryoz. d. adriatischen Meeres, p. 118, pi. iii. fig. 5 (not good).

Hah. Adriatic Sea, at Lesina ; Lissa ; Lagorta {Heller, Fritsch).

6. Crisia eburneo-denticulata, Smitt. (Plate VI.) CeUs 9-17 in each internode, co— -+■- throughout, contracted at

the orifice, which is produced into a short cj'liiidrical tube of less diameter than the body of the cell, and projecting forwards nearly at a right angle ; branches arising from first to fifth cell ; ovicell ventricosc, closely adnate.

Crisia eburneo-denticulata, Sniitt, MS.

Ci'isia eburnea (var.), Smitt, I. c. p. 142 (description of plate), pi. xvi. figs. !), 10, 11.

llah. Spitzbergen, 70-90 fathoms.

The general habit and construction of this form is so different from both 0. eburnea and C. denticulata that there can be little donbt of its specific distinction from those species. In the number of cells in each internode it agrees with C. denticulata, as also in the close aggregation of the cells ; but the peculiar production and con- traction of the terminal portion, and the invariably circular simple aperture, suffice, in my opinion, to show its specific distinction ; whilst from C. eburnea it is distinguished by the number of cells in each internode, the point of origin of the branches, the form of the ovicell, &c. In a very long internode, consisting of 17 cells, a second branch was given oflf ; but usually there appears to be only one. The surface of the cells is very finely sulcate longitudinally.

7. Crisia acropora, Bk. (Plate V. figs. 3, 4.)

Cells 9-13 in each internode ; a conical tooth (sometimes bifid) behind the aperture ; cells slightly compressed ; surface closely punctured, brilliant, sometimes porcellaneous ; branches arising from second to fourth cell. Ovicell ?

The radical tubes are much curled ; and they always arise from the bottom of the lowest cell in the internode, behind.

Crisia acropora, Bk. Voy. of Rattles, vol. i. p. 351.

Hab. Bass Strait, 47 fathoms.

8. Crisia margaritacea, n. sp. (Plate VI. b. fig. 1.)

Cells 13-21 in each internode, connate throiighout, contracted towards the aperture, which is produced into a short cylindrical tube curved abruptly forwards ; occasionally a small tooth behind the aperture : branches arising fi'om fourth to eighth cell, usually from fifth.

Crisia denticulata, Bk. Voi/. of Baftlex. vol. i. p. ?>51.

Hab. Australia (' 7?r/^^/''««rtZ-(',' Voy. of ' Fly, ^ Jules).

9. Crisia sinclarensis, n. sp. (Plate IV. figs. 7-11.)

Cells 7-9 in each internode, connate throughout ; aperture or- bicular, with a strong denticle behind it ; surface sparsely and irregularly punctured ; branches arising usually from the second, occasionally from the first cell.

Hah. Coast of Patagonia {Dr. Sinclair).

2. CRISIA. 7

One peculiarity of tlie species appears to be the frequency with ■which the continuation of the axis or the terminal internode of a branch is aborted and assumes the form of a hollow conical process (vide fig. 11). The same thing, however, may occasionally be noticed in other species.

10. Crista holdsworthii, sp. n. (Plate YI.b. fig. 2.)

Cells 9-11 in each internode, connate throughout, with a short, tubular, cylindrical jwolongation which projects directly forwards ; walls very delicate, sparsely punctured ; branches arising usually from the third, sometimes towards the base of the zoarium, from the second cell. Ovicell ?

Hub. Pearl-oyster Bank, Ceylon {Holdsworth).

Growth very slender and delicate.

11. Crista conferta, sp. n. (Plate VI. a. fig. 5.)

Cells 13-21 in each internode, nearly the upper half free, cylin- drical, curved forwards ; aperture orbicular or subcUiptical, of same diameter as the tube ; branches one to four from each internode, not opposite ; ovicell closely adnate, median or axillary, (usually) truncate.

Hab. Cii])c-YeTiMands (E.M.S. ' Herald').

A very distinct and well-marked species. It grows in dense tufts ; and the numerous branches arising from each internode are very characteristic. That the curved free portion of the cell is not, as is frequently the case, a mere production of the peristome, is proved by its walls presenting the same puncturation as is seen on the rest of the cell.

12. Crista tubulosa, n. sp. (Plate VI. a. figs. 3, 4.)

Zoarium forming dense tufts ; usually two opposite branches from each internode ; 7-9 cells in each internode, long, much pro- duced, ascending slightly, curved forwards ; mouth expanded, orbi- cular; oooecium pyriform, closely adnate, usually placed between the branches. Joints white or light-coloured.

Hab. Cape-Verd Islands {H.3I.S. ' Herald ').

The rather close tufted growth of this species may at first sight lead to its being confounded with the preceding ; they are, however, perfectly distinct.

Other recent forms noticed by Authors.

13. Crista sertulartotdes, D'Orb. 1851. Proboscina sertularioides, Aud. 1826 ; Savig?}. Egypt, pi. 6. fig. 6.

Hah. Red Sea?

May be C.fistulosa, Heller.

8 CKISIID^.

14. Crisia patagonica, D'Orb.

"Cells from 9-19, straight, very distinct; branches arising from second or tliird cell ; sometimes two from an internode, when the second arises from the sixth cell. Joints black.''

Crisia patagonica, D'Orb. ^oy. Amer. Merid. Polypiers, p. 7, pi. 1. figs. 1-3.

Hab. Patagonia.

15. Crisia sinensis, D'Orb.

" Allied to C denticulata, but with longer and more regular segments, and the cells far more closely aggregated and more numerous."

Crisia sinensis, D'Orb. Pal. Frang. p. 599. ? Crisia elongata, M.-Edw.

Hah. Hongting.

IG. Crisia martinicensis, D'Orb. " Branches very straight, slender, elongated; cells widely remote."

Crisia martinicensis, D'Orb. Pal. Frang. p. 599. Hab. Martini(iue.

17. Crisia californica, D'Orb.

"Allied to C. dentata [_slc], but with the segments much longer, thicker, and wider, the cells closely aggregated and slightly promi- nent. Ovicell smooth, placed on the side of a segment."

Crisia californica, D'OrJ>. Pal. Frang. p. 599 (1852). ? Crisia denticulata.

Hab. Lower California.

18. Crisia punctata, D'Orb.

" Segments irregular, remarkable for tlie great prominence of the cells and their punctation."

Crisia punctata, D'Orb. I. c. p. GOO. ? = Crisia sinclarensis.

Hub. He de Veuado, iler Vermeille, California.

19. Crisia attenuata, Heller.

" Branches slender, thin, smooth ; cells long, cylindrical, straight, connate throughout, alternate ; aperture round, scarcely projecting, looking outwards ; internodes attenuated at the base '

2. CRISTA. 9

the upper end, composed of 8-10 pairs of cells (lG-:i()). Surface dull white, slightly punctured."

Crisia attenuata, Heller, I. c. p. 117, pi. iv. figs. 1, 2.

Hab. Adriatic (Lesina).

20. Crisia recurva, Heller.

"Delicate, ranch branched; branches slender, covered with nu- merous white points ; cells cylindrical, alternate, in the first two thirds straight and closely connate, in the last third free and curved outwards at almost a right angle ; aperture round ; internode usually formed of four pairs of cells. Ovicells rather large, sub- globular, [axillary,] with white punctures."

Crisia recurva, Heller, I.e. p. 118, pi. iv. figs. 3, 4.

Hah. Adriatic (Lesina).

21. Crisia setosa, M'Gilliv.

" Cells 6-10 in an internode, closely adnate, upper extremity usually free for a very small extent; mouth circular, entire ; cell pro- longed outside the mouth into a stout projection, to which is articu- lated a long, hollow, calcareous spine ; surface finely and minutely granular ; branches usually given off between the first and second pair of cells. Joints brown."

Crisia setosa, M'Gilliv. Australian Pulyzoa, p. 16.

Hab. Australia.

22. Crisia biciliata, M'Gilliv.

Cells two in an internode ; outer extremity free for a short dis- tance ; mouth circular ; from the outside of each cell arise two long, hollow, jointed, filiform processes. Surface granular. Joints light brown or white.

Crisia biciliata, 3I'Gilliv. I. c. p. 16.

Differs^ according to Mr. M'Gillivray, " from GrisicUa edward- siana, D'Orb." (which, as he states, occurs in Australia), " in the pre- sence of two long jointed cilia on each cell, there being but one in C. edwardsiana .... in which species also," he remai'ks, " the cells are much more produced and the cilia are situated much further down the back of the cells." The joints, moreover, in C. edwardsiana are black.

23. Crisia producta, Smitt.

Zoooecia 1-4: in each internode, disposed very irregularly, free for more than half their length ; free portion very much produced, slightly curved outwards and forwards, cylindrical ; aperture orbi-

B

10 IDMONEID^.

cular. Branches arising very irregularly from one or more zoooecia in each internode. Ovicell deeply immersed (a mere expansion of one of the zoooecia).

Crisia producta, Smitt, Scandiv. Jlafs-Bryoz. p. 116, pi. xvi. figs. 4, 5, 6. Crisia ebiirnea (var.), Norman, Report on Shetland Dedging, p. 309.

Hah. Coast of Norway (Smitt) ; Shetland (Norm.). Probably only a variety of Crisidia cornula (vide Plate I. fig. 3). It docs not appear to have any character in common with C. ehurnea.

II. INARTICULATA.

Zoarium contiinions throughout^ not divided into distinct internodes ; fixed immovably by a contracted calcareous base and erect, or immediately adnate upon foreign bodies and recumbent in whole or in part.

Centrifugines empales a cellules non operculees, D'Orb. Pal.

Fran^. p. 605 (pars). InarticulatjE s. adfixae, Busk, Manor/. Crag Pohjz. p. 93. Incrustata, D'Orb. ; Smitt, I.e. p. 39.").

A. ERECTjE. Family II. IDMONEIDiE, Bk.

Zoarium usually erect, simple or branched ; branches cylindrical, subcylindrical, or triangular, free or anastomosing.

Tubigeridse (pars), UOrh. I. c. p. G98.

Tubuliporidse (pars), Johnst., Smitt.

Les Tubuliporiens (pars), Milne-Edic. I. c. p.\14.

Idmoueidfe, Bk. Crag Polyz. p. 94.

Idmoneadse, Bk. Eng. Cyclopaedia, art. " Polyzoa."

1. IDMONEA, Lamx.

Zoarium ramose ; branches dichotomous or irregular, free or anastomosing ; orifices of cells disposed in parallel or subparallel, transverse or oblique, usually alternate rows on each side of the front of the branches, which are usually triangular and flattened behind.

Idmonea, Lamx. Exp. Meth. p. 80; Def ranee ; BlainriUe; M.- Edwards ; Johnston ; Lonsdale ; Perns ; Michelin ; Ilagenoic ; nOrb. 18."52 (pars); Piimer (pars); Smitt (pars); Busk, I. c. p. 104 : V. Bencden.

1. IDMOXEA. 11

Crisia (pai's), D'Oibif/ny, Stoliczku, Sttiiit.

Retepora (pars), Go/dftiss, Lamk.

Diastopora (pars), Michelin.

Tubiilipora (pars), Lamk.

Tubulipora, subgen. Idmouea, Smitt, I. e. p. 398.

a. Branclves mhtriangtdar or angular in front. 1. Idmonea atlantica, E. Forbes. (Plate IX.)

Zoariuni irregularly branched, usually more or less ia one plane ; branches triangular ; cells 1-4 or 5 in each series, the innermost the longest ; dorsal surface of branch not perforate ; peristome entire.

Idmonea radians, V. Beneden, I. c. p. 646, pi. xii. figs. 4, 6.

? Idmonea coronopus, Defr. Did. d. Sc. Nat. xxii. p. 565 ; U Orb. ;

M.-Edtcards, I.e. pi. 8." fig. 4. Idmonea atlantica, Smitt ; Johnston, 1. c. p. 278, pi. 48. fig. 3 (bad) ;

Oral/, Cat. Rad. p. 141 ; Sars, Seise Lof. Finm. p. 145 ; Landsb. ;

Go.sse, Mar. Zool. part 2, p. 8. fig. 3; Busk, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 2,

vol. xviii. p. 34, pi. 1. fig. 6, a-e ; id. Quart. J. 3ficr. Science, vi.

p. 128, pi. xviii. fig. o ; id. Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1859, Trans. Sect.

p. 146 (var. tenuis) ; Smitt, Floridan Bryozoa, p. 6, pi. ii. fig. 7. ? Idmonea angustata, Z)' Orb. Pal. Fran^. p. 731 .

Ilab. Arctic seas and coasts of Norway and Finmark ; Shetland {Bctrlee), Var. tenuis. North Atlantic ; Gulf of Florida ; Madeira.

2. Idmonea radians, Lamk. (Plate VII. figs. 1-4.)

Zoarium usually procumbent, stipitate, sometimes suberect ; branches dichotomous, radiating more or less regularly in a circular form from the centre, very angular in front ; dorsal surface perfo- rated ; cells 1-4 in each series, the innermost the longest ; aperture (when quite perfect) bilabiate.

Retepora radians, Lamk. Hid. d. An. s. Vert. 2nd ed. p. 279; D'Or-

biyny, I. c. p. 731. ? Hornera radiata, Blainville, Man. d'Actin. p. 419. Idmonee rayounante, M.-Edw. I. c. p. 25.

Hab. Australian seas (abundant) ; New Zealand.

There can be no doubt of the distinctness of /. radians from the northern form, /. atlantica, nor of its occurrence in the seas of New Holland, of which M. M. -Edwards appears to have had some doubt.

Its peculiar and very beautiful, regular habit, when in perfection, delicacy of structure, size, and, above aU, its punctured dorsal sur- face, at once suiRce to distinguish it. In all the instances I have seen, in this species more especially, the zoarium arises from a short iipright stem, which spreads out at bottom into a small circular disk of attachment upon shells and stones. Idmonea atlantica is less regular in form, but sometimes affects a stelliform procumbent figure ; and, although the growth of the tubular cells is confused at the bottom, I have never myself seen it to aiise from what could properly be termed an adnate growth like Criserpia or TuhiJipora.

B 2

12 IDJIOXEID.J;.

Prof. Smitt's fcxperience, however, wuiild appear to lead to the belief that it sometimes does so ; and that able observer has thence been induced to place Idmonea in the same family, in fact as a sub- genus of Ttihulipora. At present, from my own observation, 1 am unable to agree with liim o;i this point.

3. Idmonea milneana, D" Orb. (Plate XI.)

Zoariura spreading, ramose, dichotomous, each longer branch usually terminating in a pair of short foi-ks ; tubes very slightly exserted, flattened, and even ; aperture wide, margin thick ; four cells in each series. Surface finely dotted, slightly suleate behind ; dorsal surface convex, usually marked with concentric lines of growth.

Idmonea milneana, UOrhi</ntj, Voy. Amer. Meiid., Poli/piers, p. 20, pi. ix. figs. 17-21 ; Pal. Fkuk;. p. 732; Smitt, Floriclan Bnjozoa, pi. iii. tigs. 14, 19.

? Idmonea transverea, M.-Edw. I. c. p. 2(3, pi. ix. fig. 3.

Hah. lies Malouines (D'Orb.); coast of Tierra del Fuego and Patagonia, 30 fathoms ; Chonos archipelago {Darwin).

M. M.-Edwards's figure of /. transversa appears to represent /. mUneitna.

4. Idmonea contorta, n..sp. (Plate VIII.)

Zoarinm irregularly branched or lobate ; branches, or lobes, nearly uniform in size, variously contorted, sometimes inosculating ; cells usually connate and immersed throughout, sometimes much produced and projecting, 5-7 in each series. Surface finely punc- tured ; dorsal surface convex, marked with concentric lines of growth.

Hah. Algoa Bay, South Africa.

o. Idmonea notomala, n. sp. (Plate XII. a.)

Zoarinm dichotomously branched ; branches flattened or concave behind, rounded in front ; cells deeply immersed, 3-5 in each series (usually 4) ; the series on either side are separated by a wide inter- space, in which there are no openings of cells.

Hab. Easel Amoush, Mediterranean (H.M.S. 'Porcupine').

As the specimens upon which I have ventured to found this spe- cies, brought home by the ' Porcupine ' Expedition, consist of only four or five small worn fragments of evidently an old dead growth, the above characters will apply only to the advanced stage of deve- lopment. They are, however, sufficient to distingitish the form to which they belong from any other with which I am acquainted. That it has no relation with /. atlaniica is at once obvious ; nor does it agree with any of the forms described bj' Heller or ileneghini under the names of /. froudoxa, gracilis, scrpula. incDcr/hinii, triforis, iuhvliporn. and ircfqulnris. There only remains, therefore, /.

1. IDJIOXKA. 13

transversa of Milne-Edwards ; but as there is every reason to believe that what M. Milne-Edwards has described and figured under that name is really /. mihicana, D'Orb., and as his figure, at any rate, will in no Avay suit the present form, it is impossible to place them together, even were it right in any case to adopt Lamarck's specific appellation, which was clearly applied by him, not to any form of Idmonea, but to a parasitic TuhuVipora, probably T, serpens.

6. Idmonea marionensis, n. sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 3-5, Plate VII. figs. 7, 8, young state.)

Zoarium slender, elongated, very sparingly branched ; stem and branches cylindrical; cells 2-3 in a series (more usually 2), series wide apart. Surface very finely and sparsely punctured ; dorsal surface convex, with a fine longitudinal striation.

? Crisina hoehstetteriana, Stoliczka, Novara Exp. Geul. Th. Bd. i. p. 1 1.3, tab. xviii. fig. 3 ; Snutt, Floridan Bryozoa, p. 6, pi. ii. figs. 11-13.

Hah. Marion Island, 80 fathoms ( Voij. Erebus 4' Terror, ) ; ? Gulf of Florida, Bahia {Smitt, fossil) ; Orakei Bay, Auckland, New Zea- land (StoUczlxi).

This species marks a transition between PMSfi/Zo^jora a,nd Idmonea. The cells, however, are always placed in rows or series on each side of the anterior aspect of the branch and deeplj' immersed. It may possibly be identical with M. d'Orbigny's /. canariensls (Pal. Erang. p. 732) ; but as no figure or description of that species is given, and it is merely stated to be " slender as a thread and almost round, with very few cells," it is impossible to be certain.

7. Idmonea irreg^aris, Meneghini. (Plate XII.)

Zoarium branched dichotomously ; branches slender, rounded ; cells -1—6 in each series, the outermost of which are the longest. On the front of the branch, between the lateral series, the surface pre- sents the openings of scattered cells.

Idmonea in-egularis, Meneghini, Mem. sui Polypi delta Famiylia dci Tuhidiporiani, p. 12 (teste Heller); Helkr, I. c. p. 121.

Hah. Adriatic, on the Dalmatian coast {Menegh., Heller) ; Medi- terranean (H.M.S. 'Porcupine'').

Like /. marionensis, which has some of the characters of a Pustidopora, the present form may be regarded as passing into Hornera.

8. Idmonea parasitica, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 2, 3.)

Zoarium irregularly branched ; branches slender, straggling, often anastomosing ; cells slender, in great part free, and curved in various directions, 2-5 in each series ; surface smooth, dotted.

H((h. South Australia, parasitic upon Pmtulopora infricaria (Gould).

14 IDMONEIDJ:.

9. Idmoiiea gracillima, n.sp. (Plate YII. figs. 5, 6.)

Zoarium dichotomous ; branches long and very slender; cells usually in pairs on each side of the front of the branch, -Nvith inter- mediate ones in front, the ontcr tubes the longest ; ooceeinm pyri- form, prominent (like that of Crisia) ; surface smooth, dotted.

Nab. Atlantic Ocean, 286-322 fathoms (H.M.S. 'Forciqnne').

Something like /. irrec/^nlaris in the disposition of the cells, but much slenderer and more delicate. As the ooceciura of J. irregularis is unknown, no conclusion can be drawn from its peculiar character iu /. (jraciUiiiia, in which, unlike all other Idmonea, it is a distinct pvriform vesicle, like that of a C'risia.

Other recent s^x'cies noticed hi/ Anihors.

10. Idmonea frondosa, Meneghini.

Dichotomously branched, liranehes strongly divergent, rather broad, tapering towards the end ; cells 6 in each series, long and delicate, connate only at the base.

Idmonea frondosa, 3Iencghini, I. c. p. 12 ; Ilvlkr, I. c. p. 120.

Hah. Adriatic Sea.

11. Idmonea gracilis, Meneghini.

" Branches all directed to one sidej cells 5 in each series, the cen- tral ones the longest."

Idmouea gracilis, Meneyhini, I. c. p. 12; Heller, I. c. p. 120,

Hah. Adriatic Sea.

12. Idmonea serpula, Heller.

" Dichotomously branched ; branches strongly divergent, rather wide, lateral series closely approximated, alternate, each constituted of 5-6 cells diminishing in length from the inner end of the series ; the tM'O or three inner cells connate, the two or three outer usu- ally free and curved outwards.''

Idmonea serpula, Heller, I. c. p. 120, pi. iii. figs. 8, 9. ? Idmonea frondosa, Menegh.

Hah. Adriatic Sea.

This is very probably identical Mith /. frondosa, Menegh.

13. Idmonea meneghinii, Heller.

" Dichotomously branched ; branches moderately divergent, slender, ?ubtriangular. lateral series approximated and oblique, alternate,

1. IDMONEA. 15

constituted of five cells diminishing in length from within outwards, pretty closely connate. Surface spotted with white."

Idmonea meueghinii, Hell. I. c. p. 120, pi. iii. figs. 6, 7.

Hah. Adriatic Sea.

14. Idmonea triforis, Heller.

" In habit like the preceding, only that the branches are more attenuated, and there are only three cells in each series."

Idmonea triforis, Hell. I. c. p. 120.

Hah. Adriatic.

15. Idmonea tubulipora, Meneghini.

" Zoarium expanded horizontally, the numerous branches radia- ting from a central point ; lateral series regularly alternate, oblique, not simple as in other species, but consisting of two or three rows of cells, which are closely connate."

Idmonea tubulipora, Menegh. I. c. p. 12 ; Heller, I. c. p. 120.

16. Idmonea dilatata, D'Orb.

" Rose-coloured when fresh; branches short and very wide, smooth or longitudinally striated beneath ; the series of cells form, as it wei'e, projecting horns on both sides, each contains six cells pro- duced into long salient tubes."

Idmonea dilatata, D'Orb. Pal. Franq. p. 731.

Hab. He de Re.

17. Idmonea angustata, D'Orb,

" Branches only half as wide as in the preceding, a)id much thicker, compressed, the lateral series composed of three very long free cells, which are wide apart."

Idmonea angustata, D'Orb. I. e. p. 731.

Hah. Banks of Newfoundland.

18. Idmonea rustica, D'Orb.

" Irregularly branched ; branches as much compressed as in /. dihtata ; the series of cells much more closely approximated and indistinct in the middle of the branches, each composed of 4-5 cells ; dorsal surface wrinkled, transversely punctate."

Idmonea rustica, D'Orb. Pal. Franq. p. 731.

Uab. Manilla, Hongkong, Macao, Chusan archipelago (D'Orh.).

1(> IWONEID^i:.

19. Idiuonea tuberosa, D'Orb.

" Sleudei', everywhere wrinkled truiisvensely, brauolied, slightly compressed ; rows indistinct, each consisting of two separate cells."

Idmouea tuberosa, D'Orb. I. c. p. 7ol. ■;' Idinonea mariouensis, Bk.

Hah. He de Basilan.

20. Idmonea canariensis, D'Orb.

" Slender as a thread, almost round, with very few cells."

Idmonea canariensis, D'Orb. I. c. p. 731. ? Idmouea gracillima. BI;.

Bab. Tencriffe (D'Orb.).

21. Idmouea californica, D'Urlj.

"Wide, much depressed, marked as if by steps of growth beneath, presenting above simple transverse lines of cells not interrupted in the middle."

Idmouea californica, D'Orb. I. c. p. 7oI.

IJab. He de Yenado, iler Yermeille, California (D'Orb.).

22. Idmonea fenestrata, Busk.

Zoarium irregularly reticulate ; branches anastomosing, subtri- gonal, often angular behind ; mouths of cells projecting, quadran- gular, 5-0 in each series ; cells flattened in front. Surface linelj' punctate ; dorsal surface very finely reticulate, sulcate, with elon- gated pores in the sulci.

Idmonea fenestrata, Bk. Mo)i. Crmj Tolyzoa, p. 105, pi. xv. fig. 6 P ; Smitt, SkandiH. Hofs-Bryuzoer, 18G6, p. 300.

Hah. Spitzbergen, 50 fathoms (Malmijrcn). Fossil in the Coral- line Crag.

The identification of this species with the Crag form has been made by Prof. Smitt with some doubt.

2. HORNERA, Lamx.

Zoarium ramose, ramification irregularly dichotomous. Branches cj'lindi'ical or subcompressed. Zoocecia opening only on one side of the branch. Oocecia dorsal or anterior.

Hornera, Lavix. Krposit. p. 41 (1821) ; Milne-Edwards (pars) ; Beiiss (pars); Blahiville (pars); Def ranee, Michelin, Hagenow, D'Or- hi(jny, Smitt, Busk, Sars, Alder, Norman, ^-c.

Millepora (pars), Limi., Pallas, Esper, Solandcr.

Retepora (pars), Lamk., OoMfK.ss.

Siphodictyiun. L(in>ida!r.

2. HORNKKA. 17

a. Species uitk durgal uuacia ; antvrior siirfuce /o/H/ifudi/uilli/ Jibrillidcd or sidcate.

1. Hornera frondiculata, Lamx. (Plate XX. figs. 1, 2, 3, 6.)

Branches tapering, more or less iu one plane, cylindrical or sub- compressed ; anterior surface strongly fibro-rcticulate, presenting rhomboidal spaces in which are situated the openings of the zoooecia surrounded by numerous pores : mouth of tubes exserted, usually bifid ; dorsal surface coarsely reticulate, granular or nearly smooth, with small elongated pores in the sulci ; oooecium oblong, carinate, ribbed ; aperture tubular, superior.

Hornera frondiculata, Lamx. Exposit. p. 41, pi. 74. figs. 7-9; M.- Ediv. I. c. p. 17, pi. 9. figs. 1-1 c; Blainv. Man. d'Actinol. p. 419; Heller, I. c. p. 124.

Retepora frondiculata, Lamk.

PMillepora tubipora, Ell. i^- Sol. p. 139, pi. xxxi. fig. 1.

Millepora lichenoides, Linn., Pallas, Esper.

? Hornera affinis, M.-Ediv. I. c. p. 9, pi. x. fig. 1.

? Hornera andegavensis, Michelin, Icon. Zoojihi/t. p. 318, pi. 70. fig. 8.

Hornera serrata et tubuIosaP, Meneghini, I. c. p. 10.

Hah. Mediterranean, Adriatic (very abundant). Fossil in the Crag and Upper Tertiaries of Sicily &c.

2. Hornera lichenoides, Linn. (sp.). (Plate XVIII. figs. 5, 0.)

Zoarium irregularly dichotomous ; branches crowded ; anterior surface faintly fibro-reticulate, sparsely punctate ; opening of zoo- oecia in front of branches circular, and either wholly immersed or slightly prominent, those on the sides of the branches tubular ; orifice elliptical, entire, the border being produced on one side ; dor- sal surface finely sulcate, with minute pores in the sulci ; oocecia dorsal, subglobular ; surface reticulate or coarsely punctured ; aper- ture tubular, lateral. {Alder.)

" Corallium," Pontoppidan, Norges Natuurl. Hist. i. p. 2o8, pi. 14.

figs. D, E. Millepora lichenoides, Linn. ; Miiller, Prodroin. p. 252. no. 3046 ;

Strom, Act. Hafn. xii. p. 309, pi. iii. fig. 12 ; Fabricius, Zool. Sanunl.

(MS. Smitt), k Faun. Grant, p. 432 (non Pallas). Hornera frondiculata, Sars, Reise Loff. Finm., Nyt Magazin f. Nat.

Vid. t. vi. p. 146 ; Ptisk, Ann. N. H. 2 ser. xviii. p. 34, pi. i. fig. 7. Hornera borealis, Busk, Crag Polyzoa, pp. 95 & 103; Alder, New

Brit. Polyzoa, Mic. Journ. new ser. vol. iv. p. 108, pi. v. figs. 1, 6. Hornera lichenoides, Smitt, I. c. p. 404, pl.vi. fig. 10, pi. vii. figs. 1-14.

Hah. Arctic Seas (Loven) ; coast of IS'orway (Pontopjj., Sars, M^ Andrew) ; Shetland (^Barlee).

3. Hornera csespitosa, n. sp. (Plate XV.)

Zoarium densely and irregularly branched in all directions ; secondary branches short and truncate ; anterior surface obscurely

18 IDMONEID^.

fibrilltited, granular, punctured ; mouths of zoooecia circular, level with the surface, arranged in irregular quincunx ; peristome entire, slightly thickened ; dorsal surface granular, irregularly sulcate, densely punctured with unequal round pores ; oooecium unknown.

Hab. Cape Capricorn, 15 fathoms ( Voy. Battlesnahe) ; Tierra del Fuego, 53° S., 30 fathoms (C. Darwin).

The Australian form is rather more robust than the Fuegian ; but in essential characters the two appear to coincide.

4. Hornera pectinata, Busk.

Zoarium irregularly branched ; branches terete ; anterior surface sparsely punctured and obscurely ridged, porcellaneous, dorsal sparsely punctured ; mouths of zoooecia exsorted ; peristome pecti- nate ; oooecia unknown.

Hornera pectinata, Bk. Quad. Jount. Mic. Set. new ser. vol. i. p. 79, pi. xxxiii. tigs. 4-0.

Hab. Madeira (/. F. Johnson).

b. Species with the ooa-cia anterior, either ivholli/ or in ;>«)•< ; surface in front not Jilrillated or sulcate.

5. Hornera violacea, Sars. (Plate XVIII. figs. 1-4.)

Zoarium irregularly branched ; branches short, truncate ; zoooecia distinct, immersed or in part free ; dorsal surface granular or very finely striated with minute pores ; ovicells elongated, situated in the axils of the branches, partly in front and partly behind, smooth and finely punctate, with a thin median costa.

Hornera violacea ( forma violacea), Smitt, I. c. p. 404, tab. vi. figs, tj- 9 ; Sars, Geol. og Zool. Jaytt. Reise Trondj. 1862, Nyt Mag. Nat. Vicl. xii. p. 282.

Pustulopora orcadensis, Bk. Q. J. Mic. Sc. (1860), viii. p. 214, pi. 39. figs. 1, 2.

Hab. Arctic Seas ; coast of Norway, Hammerfest (Sars).

Yar. a. proboscina. (Plate XVIII. figs. 1, 3.) Oooecia in front, suborbicular, umbilicate, finely punctate.

Hornera violacea (forma proboscina), Sniitt, I. c. p. 404, pi. vi. figs. 2 &5.

Zoarium irregularly branched ; branches lax and straggling ; zoooecia tubular, distinct, elongated, in great part free ; anterior surface without sulci, ridges, or punctures ; dorsal surface granular, finely punctate ; oooecia anterior, suborbiciilar or elongate, situated in the axils of the branches, partly in front and partly behind (Nor- man) ; smooth, finely punctate, with a thin median costa.

;j. REXIHORNERA, 19

Var. j(3. TUBUiosA. (Plate XVIII. figs. 2, 4.) Oooecia represented by an elongated dilatation in front of a branch ; surface smooth.

With respect to the last-mentioned form, I have considerable doubt as to the propriety of associating it with H. violacea at all. It forms, in fact, so marked a transitional form between Pustulopora and